Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a domesticated plant also known as India buckwheat, India wheat, green buckwheat, bitter buckwheat, and duckwheat. It belongs to the genus Fagopyrum in the family Polygonoaceae, and like buckwheat, it is considered as a cereal. Unlike true cereals, common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat are not members of the grass family, and therefore, not related to true wheat.
In terms of taste, tartary buckwheat is comparatively more bitter in taste compared to common buckwheat. However, it contains more rutin (also known as Vitamin P) than common buckwheat, and has the extra health advantage of containing quercitrin. Rutin is a phenolic compound best known for its antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and can be found in buckwheat, asparagus, the fruit of the fava d’anta tree, the fruits and flowers of the pagoda tree, the fruits and rinds of citrus fruits (including orange, lemon, lime, and grapefruit), apples, and berries. Experts found that tartary buckwheat seeds have a lot more rutin compared to common buckwheat seeds (up to 1.7 percent dry weight in tartary buckwheat and 0.01 percent dry weight in the common variety). Quercitrin, on the other hand is a glycoside formed from the deoxy sugar rhamnose and the flavonoid quercetin—it is found mainly in Tartary buckwheat and in various species of oaks.
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